英語の訳し方の基本的な考え(時制・強調構文・無生物主語・of など)

訳す時の参考にしてください。

・He seems to be abroad now.  =It seems that he (        ) abroad now. 

・He seems to have been abroad when he was young. 

・It seems that he (       ) abroad when he was young.  若かった時、彼は海外に                                  

・He seemed to be abroad. =It seemed that he (    )abroad. ※ 彼は海外に                              

・He seemed to have been abroad.

・It seemed that he (              ) abroad. ※彼は海外に                         

  • I think that he is kind.   
  • I think that he was kind.
  • I thought that he was kind. ※                                   
  • I thought that he had been kind. ※                                
  • +I thought that he is kind. 
  • It was Yumi that bought a car last year.                              
  • It was a car that Yumi bought last year.                              
  • It was last year that Yumi bought a car.                              
  • It was because he had broken his leg that he didn’t play in the game.
  • It was just the book my teacher had talked about.
  • They respected and even obeyed the young man.                           
  • Her songs make people happy.                                 
  • A few minutes’ walk will bring you to the museum.                          
  • The heavy rain prevented us from going out.                           
  • His unexpected visit surprised us.                                
  • Acid rain caused the trees to die.                                 
  • What brought him to Japan?                                   
  • These flowers reminds me of my home.                               
  • Going by train will save you quite a lot of money.                           
  • Hard work enabled him to succeed in business.                           
  • I have just heard of my uncle’s sudden death.

・I have just heard that my uncle has died (             ).

・His resemblance to his mother is very striking.

 ・That he (          ) his mother is very striking.

  • He is proud of his (          ) to read French.

  ・He is proud that he is able to read French.

  • the rise of the sun   
  • the writing of a letter
  • his love of music
  • Some students like science very much, and others like music.
  • Some people say that animals can only communicate something that exists here and now.
  • 「彼、彼ら、彼女、彼女たち」などの言葉は極力、訳には使わない。

( –      )(         )(                        )

    解答

・He seems to be abroad now.  =It seems that he (   is     ) abroad now. 

seems もto be も同じ時制であることに注意。

  • He seems to have been abroad when he was young. 

・It seems that he (   had been    ) abroad when he was young.  若かった時、彼は海外に 行ったように思われる。

seems は現在形、不定詞は完了形になっているので、時制がずれることに注意。                                

・He seemed to be abroad. =It seemed that he ( was )abroad. ※ 彼は海外に  いるように思われた。

時制のずれはない。that 以下は、時制の一致で現在形で訳すことに注意。                             

  • He seemed to have been abroad.

It seemed that he (   had been      ) abroad. ※彼は海外に いたように思われた。

seemed と不定詞to have been から時制がずれていることが分かる。下の文はいわゆる大過去。                        

  • I think that he is kind.   彼は親切だと思う。
  • I think that he was kind.  彼は親切だったと思う。
  • I thought that he was kind. ※ 彼は親切だと思った。

that 以下は時制の一致。現在形で訳す。

8.  I thought that he had been kind. ※ 彼は親切だったと思った。時制がずれていることに注意。                               

+I thought that he is kind. 彼は親切だと思った。これは単なる時制の一致。

  • It was Yumi that bought a car last year.  由美が昨年車を買った。前から訳すこと。 英語の語順で強調すること。                           
  • It was a car that Yumi bought last year.  車を由美は昨年買った。                            
  • It was last year that Yumi bought a car.  昨年由美は車を買った。                            
  • It was because he had broken his leg that he didn’t play in the game. これも強調構文。足を骨折したので、試合に出られなかった。
  • It was just the book my teacher had talked about. that の省略。まさにその本を先生が話してくれた。関係代名詞ではありません。
  • They respected and even obeyed the young man. 彼らはその若者を尊敬し、従った。the young man は、respected とobeyed の目的語であることに注意。                          
  • Her songs make people happy.  人は彼女の歌を聞くと気分が良い。無生物主語のSは副詞的に訳す。                               
  • A few minutes’ walk will bring you to the museum. 2,3分も歩くと、美術館に着きますよ。                         
  • The heavy rain prevented us from going out. 激しい雨だったので、私たちは外出できなかった。無生物主語の典型的な例文です。                          
  • His unexpected visit surprised us.  彼が不意に訪れたので私たちは驚いた。his はもともとhe visited なので、訳す時には「が」と訳しました。                              
  • Acid rain caused the trees to die.  酸性雨のために、木々は枯れてしまいました。                               
  • What brought him to Japan?    なぜ彼は日本に来たのですか。(何が彼を日本に連れて来たのか、では日本語が不自然ですね。                               
  • These flowers reminds me of my home. これらの花を見ると、故郷を思い出す。remind ~を思い出させる。remember ~を思い出す。                              
  • Going by train will save you quite a lot of money. 電車で行くと、ずいぶん節約になりますよ。save OOの構文。                          
  • Hard work enabled him to succeed in business.  懸命に働いたので、彼はビジネスで成功した。                         
  • I have just heard of my uncle’s sudden death.

I have just heard that my uncle has died (  suddenly       ). 副詞

・His resemblance to his mother is very striking.

・That he (  resembles       ) his mother is very striking. resemblance は名詞。resemble は動詞。

  彼が母に似ているのは顕著です。(明らかです) 

  • He is proud of his (  ability     ) to read French.

     He is proud that he is able to read French. able の名詞形は、ability.

  • the rise of the sun  of は主格。太陽が昇ること 
  • the writing of a letter of は目的格。手紙を書くこと。
  • his love of music of は目的格。音楽を愛すること。
  • Some students like science very much, and others like music. 科学が好きな人もいれば、音楽が好きな人もいる。some….others の構文。
  • Some people say that animals can only communicate something that exists here and now.

動物は、今この場にある物事を伝えることが出来るという人もいる。

  • 「彼、彼ら、彼女、彼女たち」などの言葉は極力、訳には使わない。

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